Carmelo, a local shepherd, watches the end of a wildfire that broke out on August 14, 2018 near his pastures around Barone, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.

Carmelo, a local shepherd, watches the end of a wildfire that broke out on August 14, 2018 near his pastures around Barone, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.

 A terrain wiped out by a wildfire set up on August 4, 2018, near Condofuri Superiore, on the Aspromonte National Park borders.

A terrain wiped out by a wildfire set up on August 4, 2018, near Condofuri Superiore, on the Aspromonte National Park borders.

 Domenica Romeo (36), shepherd-sentinel of Muccari, watches her herd of goats in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Domenica Romeo (36), shepherd-sentinel of Muccari, watches her herd of goats in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

 A view of Casalinuovo, a town in the Aspromonte National Park abandoned in the 1951 after a flood and today inhabited by only two shepherd brothers, August 2018.

A view of Casalinuovo, a town in the Aspromonte National Park abandoned in the 1951 after a flood and today inhabited by only two shepherd brothers, August 2018.

 Giovanni Morabito, one of the two shepherd brothers who live in Casalinuovo, a town abandoned after the 1951 flood, August 2018.

Giovanni Morabito, one of the two shepherd brothers who live in Casalinuovo, a town abandoned after the 1951 flood, August 2018.

 Domenica Romeo’s herd in the Amendolea torrent, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Domenica Romeo’s herd in the Amendolea torrent, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

 Nino Nucera, shepherd-sentinel of Bova, next to his old Fiat Panda 4x4 used to graze his herd in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Nino Nucera, shepherd-sentinel of Bova, next to his old Fiat Panda 4x4 used to graze his herd in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

 A Statue of the “Madonna della Montagna” in the Polsi’s sanctuary, in the geographical centre of the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.  The sanctuary is the symbolic stronghold of ’Ndrangheta; chiefs of the Calabrian criminal syndicate have held at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Polsi annual meetings for almost a century. Effigies, holy cards bump stickers and tattoos of this particular cult can be seen everywhere around the mountains.

A Statue of the “Madonna della Montagna” in the Polsi’s sanctuary, in the geographical centre of the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

The sanctuary is the symbolic stronghold of ’Ndrangheta; chiefs of the Calabrian criminal syndicate have held at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Polsi annual meetings for almost a century. Effigies, holy cards bump stickers and tattoos of this particular cult can be seen everywhere around the mountains.

 A wildfire broken out on August 2 around Roghudi Vecchio, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.

A wildfire broken out on August 2 around Roghudi Vecchio, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.

 Three employees of Calabria Verde, the forestry public company who handles the woodland heritage, working in a lookout to spot wildfires near Roghudi Vecchio town, August 2018.

Three employees of Calabria Verde, the forestry public company who handles the woodland heritage, working in a lookout to spot wildfires near Roghudi Vecchio town, August 2018.

 Salvatore Natoli (42), a volunteer for a firefighter cooperative, spots a wildfire near the town of Roghudi Vecchio, on the Aspromonte National Park borders, August 2018.  Salvatore is the head of the San Luca Cooperative, which coordinates about twenty local volunteers: "there was a project to demolish this land," he says, speaking of the great amount of fires that damage Calabria every year.

Salvatore Natoli (42), a volunteer for a firefighter cooperative, spots a wildfire near the town of Roghudi Vecchio, on the Aspromonte National Park borders, August 2018.

Salvatore is the head of the San Luca Cooperative, which coordinates about twenty local volunteers: "there was a project to demolish this land," he says, speaking of the great amount of fires that damage Calabria every year.

 A cow crosses the road connecting Africo Vecchio and Bova in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.  ‘Ndrangheta’s control over these reaches sometimes paradoxical levels: free-roaming cows, believed to be one of the results of the violent 1971 feud between the Facchineri and Raso clans, have caused damage, ruined crops and even got a person killed in 2005, Fortunato La Rosa, guilty of having denounced the encroachment of cows on his land.‘Ndrangheta sees the animals as a sign of their power and influence, so they have been left to wander undisturbed.

A cow crosses the road connecting Africo Vecchio and Bova in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

‘Ndrangheta’s control over these reaches sometimes paradoxical levels: free-roaming cows, believed to be one of the results of the violent 1971 feud between the Facchineri and Raso clans, have caused damage, ruined crops and even got a person killed in 2005, Fortunato La Rosa, guilty of having denounced the encroachment of cows on his land.‘Ndrangheta sees the animals as a sign of their power and influence, so they have been left to wander undisturbed.

 Traces of a wildfire broke out around Barone on August 14, 2018, in the Aspromonte National Park borders.

Traces of a wildfire broke out around Barone on August 14, 2018, in the Aspromonte National Park borders.

 Gianmarco Micchia (21), a civil protection volunteer, on his Vespa 50 employed to travel between wildfires lookout points near Samo, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Gianmarco Micchia (21), a civil protection volunteer, on his Vespa 50 employed to travel between wildfires lookout points near Samo, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

 A burned car on the road that connects Regio Calabria to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Polsi, on the Aspromonte National Park, August 12, 2018.

A burned car on the road that connects Regio Calabria to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Polsi, on the Aspromonte National Park, August 12, 2018.

 Cosimo Damiano Priulla (26), a volunteer for San Luca firefighter cooperative, in the lookout near the town of Bova, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Cosimo Damiano Priulla (26), a volunteer for San Luca firefighter cooperative, in the lookout near the town of Bova, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

 Binoculars on the outside of an abandoned house in Casalinuovo in the Aspromonte National Park, a town inhabited by only two shepherd brothers, August 2018.

Binoculars on the outside of an abandoned house in Casalinuovo in the Aspromonte National Park, a town inhabited by only two shepherd brothers, August 2018.

 Nino Nucera (41), shepherd-sentinel of Bova, grazes his herd driving an old Fiat Panda 4x4 in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.  Nino is one of the shepherds involved by the park authorities in the firefighting activities. After spending years working in a body shop on the Ionian coast, Nino decided to return to Bova to devote himself to pastoralism, taking the place of his father, too old to look after the herd.

Nino Nucera (41), shepherd-sentinel of Bova, grazes his herd driving an old Fiat Panda 4x4 in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Nino is one of the shepherds involved by the park authorities in the firefighting activities. After spending years working in a body shop on the Ionian coast, Nino decided to return to Bova to devote himself to pastoralism, taking the place of his father, too old to look after the herd.

 Carmelo, a local shepherd, watches the end of a wildfire that broke out on August 14, 2018 near his pastures around Barone, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.

Carmelo, a local shepherd, watches the end of a wildfire that broke out on August 14, 2018 near his pastures around Barone, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.

 Domenica Romeo (36), shepherd-sentinel of Muccari, watches her herd of goats in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.  Domenica decided to make pastoralism her main occupation after the death of her father, also a shepherd, clashing with the opposition of her family and facing the criticism of a society that considers pastoralism an exclusively male job.

Domenica Romeo (36), shepherd-sentinel of Muccari, watches her herd of goats in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Domenica decided to make pastoralism her main occupation after the death of her father, also a shepherd, clashing with the opposition of her family and facing the criticism of a society that considers pastoralism an exclusively male job.

 Nino Nucera (41), shepherd-sentinel of Bova, in the lookout spot near his goats’ pen, August 2018.  “I was pushed to go back to my origins, I was pushed to be what my grandfather was, what my father was, by my origins, and by the love for this land” says Nino, talking about his decision to go back living in Aspromonte.

Nino Nucera (41), shepherd-sentinel of Bova, in the lookout spot near his goats’ pen, August 2018.

“I was pushed to go back to my origins, I was pushed to be what my grandfather was, what my father was, by my origins, and by the love for this land” says Nino, talking about his decision to go back living in Aspromonte.

 Aspromonte goats from Nino Nucera’s herd, a shepherd-sentinel of Bova, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Aspromonte goats from Nino Nucera’s herd, a shepherd-sentinel of Bova, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

 Traces of a wildfire broke out around Barone on August 14, 2018, in the Aspromonte National Park borders.

Traces of a wildfire broke out around Barone on August 14, 2018, in the Aspromonte National Park borders.

 Carmelo, a local shepherd, watches the end of a wildfire that broke out on August 14, 2018 near his pastures around Barone, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.
 A terrain wiped out by a wildfire set up on August 4, 2018, near Condofuri Superiore, on the Aspromonte National Park borders.
 Domenica Romeo (36), shepherd-sentinel of Muccari, watches her herd of goats in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.
 A view of Casalinuovo, a town in the Aspromonte National Park abandoned in the 1951 after a flood and today inhabited by only two shepherd brothers, August 2018.
 Giovanni Morabito, one of the two shepherd brothers who live in Casalinuovo, a town abandoned after the 1951 flood, August 2018.
 Domenica Romeo’s herd in the Amendolea torrent, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.
 Nino Nucera, shepherd-sentinel of Bova, next to his old Fiat Panda 4x4 used to graze his herd in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.
 A Statue of the “Madonna della Montagna” in the Polsi’s sanctuary, in the geographical centre of the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.  The sanctuary is the symbolic stronghold of ’Ndrangheta; chiefs of the Calabrian criminal syndicate have held at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Polsi annual meetings for almost a century. Effigies, holy cards bump stickers and tattoos of this particular cult can be seen everywhere around the mountains.
 A wildfire broken out on August 2 around Roghudi Vecchio, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.
 Three employees of Calabria Verde, the forestry public company who handles the woodland heritage, working in a lookout to spot wildfires near Roghudi Vecchio town, August 2018.
 Salvatore Natoli (42), a volunteer for a firefighter cooperative, spots a wildfire near the town of Roghudi Vecchio, on the Aspromonte National Park borders, August 2018.  Salvatore is the head of the San Luca Cooperative, which coordinates about twenty local volunteers: "there was a project to demolish this land," he says, speaking of the great amount of fires that damage Calabria every year.
 A cow crosses the road connecting Africo Vecchio and Bova in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.  ‘Ndrangheta’s control over these reaches sometimes paradoxical levels: free-roaming cows, believed to be one of the results of the violent 1971 feud between the Facchineri and Raso clans, have caused damage, ruined crops and even got a person killed in 2005, Fortunato La Rosa, guilty of having denounced the encroachment of cows on his land.‘Ndrangheta sees the animals as a sign of their power and influence, so they have been left to wander undisturbed.
 Traces of a wildfire broke out around Barone on August 14, 2018, in the Aspromonte National Park borders.
 Gianmarco Micchia (21), a civil protection volunteer, on his Vespa 50 employed to travel between wildfires lookout points near Samo, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.
 A burned car on the road that connects Regio Calabria to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Polsi, on the Aspromonte National Park, August 12, 2018.
 Cosimo Damiano Priulla (26), a volunteer for San Luca firefighter cooperative, in the lookout near the town of Bova, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.
 Binoculars on the outside of an abandoned house in Casalinuovo in the Aspromonte National Park, a town inhabited by only two shepherd brothers, August 2018.
 Nino Nucera (41), shepherd-sentinel of Bova, grazes his herd driving an old Fiat Panda 4x4 in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.  Nino is one of the shepherds involved by the park authorities in the firefighting activities. After spending years working in a body shop on the Ionian coast, Nino decided to return to Bova to devote himself to pastoralism, taking the place of his father, too old to look after the herd.
 Carmelo, a local shepherd, watches the end of a wildfire that broke out on August 14, 2018 near his pastures around Barone, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.
 Domenica Romeo (36), shepherd-sentinel of Muccari, watches her herd of goats in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.  Domenica decided to make pastoralism her main occupation after the death of her father, also a shepherd, clashing with the opposition of her family and facing the criticism of a society that considers pastoralism an exclusively male job.
 Nino Nucera (41), shepherd-sentinel of Bova, in the lookout spot near his goats’ pen, August 2018.  “I was pushed to go back to my origins, I was pushed to be what my grandfather was, what my father was, by my origins, and by the love for this land” says Nino, talking about his decision to go back living in Aspromonte.
 Aspromonte goats from Nino Nucera’s herd, a shepherd-sentinel of Bova, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.
 Traces of a wildfire broke out around Barone on August 14, 2018, in the Aspromonte National Park borders.

Carmelo, a local shepherd, watches the end of a wildfire that broke out on August 14, 2018 near his pastures around Barone, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.

A terrain wiped out by a wildfire set up on August 4, 2018, near Condofuri Superiore, on the Aspromonte National Park borders.

Domenica Romeo (36), shepherd-sentinel of Muccari, watches her herd of goats in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

A view of Casalinuovo, a town in the Aspromonte National Park abandoned in the 1951 after a flood and today inhabited by only two shepherd brothers, August 2018.

Giovanni Morabito, one of the two shepherd brothers who live in Casalinuovo, a town abandoned after the 1951 flood, August 2018.

Domenica Romeo’s herd in the Amendolea torrent, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Nino Nucera, shepherd-sentinel of Bova, next to his old Fiat Panda 4x4 used to graze his herd in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

A Statue of the “Madonna della Montagna” in the Polsi’s sanctuary, in the geographical centre of the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

The sanctuary is the symbolic stronghold of ’Ndrangheta; chiefs of the Calabrian criminal syndicate have held at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Polsi annual meetings for almost a century. Effigies, holy cards bump stickers and tattoos of this particular cult can be seen everywhere around the mountains.

A wildfire broken out on August 2 around Roghudi Vecchio, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.

Three employees of Calabria Verde, the forestry public company who handles the woodland heritage, working in a lookout to spot wildfires near Roghudi Vecchio town, August 2018.

Salvatore Natoli (42), a volunteer for a firefighter cooperative, spots a wildfire near the town of Roghudi Vecchio, on the Aspromonte National Park borders, August 2018.

Salvatore is the head of the San Luca Cooperative, which coordinates about twenty local volunteers: "there was a project to demolish this land," he says, speaking of the great amount of fires that damage Calabria every year.

A cow crosses the road connecting Africo Vecchio and Bova in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

‘Ndrangheta’s control over these reaches sometimes paradoxical levels: free-roaming cows, believed to be one of the results of the violent 1971 feud between the Facchineri and Raso clans, have caused damage, ruined crops and even got a person killed in 2005, Fortunato La Rosa, guilty of having denounced the encroachment of cows on his land.‘Ndrangheta sees the animals as a sign of their power and influence, so they have been left to wander undisturbed.

Traces of a wildfire broke out around Barone on August 14, 2018, in the Aspromonte National Park borders.

Gianmarco Micchia (21), a civil protection volunteer, on his Vespa 50 employed to travel between wildfires lookout points near Samo, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

A burned car on the road that connects Regio Calabria to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Polsi, on the Aspromonte National Park, August 12, 2018.

Cosimo Damiano Priulla (26), a volunteer for San Luca firefighter cooperative, in the lookout near the town of Bova, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Binoculars on the outside of an abandoned house in Casalinuovo in the Aspromonte National Park, a town inhabited by only two shepherd brothers, August 2018.

Nino Nucera (41), shepherd-sentinel of Bova, grazes his herd driving an old Fiat Panda 4x4 in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Nino is one of the shepherds involved by the park authorities in the firefighting activities. After spending years working in a body shop on the Ionian coast, Nino decided to return to Bova to devote himself to pastoralism, taking the place of his father, too old to look after the herd.

Carmelo, a local shepherd, watches the end of a wildfire that broke out on August 14, 2018 near his pastures around Barone, on the Aspromonte National Park’s borders.

Domenica Romeo (36), shepherd-sentinel of Muccari, watches her herd of goats in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Domenica decided to make pastoralism her main occupation after the death of her father, also a shepherd, clashing with the opposition of her family and facing the criticism of a society that considers pastoralism an exclusively male job.

Nino Nucera (41), shepherd-sentinel of Bova, in the lookout spot near his goats’ pen, August 2018.

“I was pushed to go back to my origins, I was pushed to be what my grandfather was, what my father was, by my origins, and by the love for this land” says Nino, talking about his decision to go back living in Aspromonte.

Aspromonte goats from Nino Nucera’s herd, a shepherd-sentinel of Bova, in the Aspromonte National Park, August 2018.

Traces of a wildfire broke out around Barone on August 14, 2018, in the Aspromonte National Park borders.

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